Dementia is a degenerative and progressive brain disorder, characterized by the deterioration of cognitive function (memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement) and commonly accompanied by a deterioration in emotional control, social behaviour or motivation. This deck explains dementia – its prevalence, signs, symptoms and diagnostic criteria. It is intended to provide an educational overview, complete with key definitions.
This slide deck has been developed in collaboration with the former Lundbeck International Neuroscience Foundation.
Definitions and Diagnosis
This deck explains dementia – it’s prevalence, signs, symptoms and diagnostic criteria. It is intended as an educational overview, complete with key definitions.
What is dementia?
The term ‘dementia’ was used in the early eighteenth century to imply an incompetence in managing one’s affairs.[McKeith & Fairbairn, 2001] Early in the nineteenth century, the word dementia began to be used in medicine to describe patients with a…
Age-specific prevalence of dementia
Across worldwide regions, the age-specific prevalence of dementia shows a similar pattern, increasing with age, but showing considerable heterogeneity among the oldest age group (≥90 years old).[Winblad et al., 2016]
The prevalence of AD is greater for women…
Main types of dementia
Estimates vary, but there is a general consensus that AD accounts for approximately 60–80% of dementias; dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) may account for 10–15% of dementias, and vascular dementia (VaD), and fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) each make a contribution of…
What is Alzheimer’s disease?
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for approximately 60–80% of all dementia cases.[Alzheimer’s Association, 2016] AD is a degenerative and progressive disorder, associated with cognitive, functional and behavioral symptoms.[Alzheimer’s Association, 2016]
The most common…
Diagnosis, Signs and Symptoms
Diagnosis, Signs and Symptoms
Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease
One of the core criteria for a diagnosis of dementia is the presence of cognitive or behavioral (neuropsychiatric) symptoms that represent a decline from previous levels of functioning and performing.[McKhann et al., 2011]
Once a clinical diagnosis of…
Examples of symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease
In general, the symptoms of AD can be divided into three categories – cognitive, functional, and neuropsychiatric.
Cognitive symptoms – the main areas of cognition that can be impaired over the course of AD include memory, language, attention and…
Hypothetical model for the pathological–clinical continuum of Alzheimer’s disease
The slide represents a hypothetical model for the pathological-clinical continuum of AD.[Sperling et al., 2011]
The ‘preclinical’ stage precedes mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and includes individuals who have evidence of early AD pathological changes, but do not meet clinical…
AD is a complex disease of multifactorial etiology that, despite a wealth of clinical research, is not yet completely understood. Among various genetic and environmental factors implicated in AD, age is the most important risk factor for the disease.…