Schizophrenia is characterized by distortions in thinking, perception, emotions, language, sense of self and behaviour. People with schizophrenia commonly experience hallucinations and delusions. In this slide deck, basic concepts and definitions related to schizophrenia are explored. It also includes slides comparing the diagnostics based on ICD-10, ICD-11, DSM-5 and DSM-IV.

This slide deck has been developed in collaboration with the former Lundbeck International Neuroscience Foundation.

Index for
slide deck

Title

Definitions and Diagnosis
Definitions and Diagnosis
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Definitions

Definitions
Definitions
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Schizophrenia: a definition
Schizophrenia: a definition
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Schizophrenia: a definition (cont’d)
Schizophrenia: a definition (cont’d)
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The trajectory to schizophrenia  – evolution of symptoms and main risk factors
The trajectory to schizophrenia – evolution of symptoms and main risk factors
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Negative Symptoms: something is “missing”
Negative Symptoms: something is “missing”
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Positive Symptoms: Hallucinations
Positive Symptoms: Hallucinations
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Delusions
Delusions
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What is optimal functioning for a patient with schizophrenia?

What is optimal functioning for a patient with schizophrenia?
What is optimal functioning for a patient with schizophrenia?
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Take home points
Take home points
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Functioning is complex and multifactorial
Functioning is complex and multifactorial

Functioning is complex and multifactorial, and there are many different domains of function e.g. social, everyday, community and psychological functioning, some which are defined on this slide.

Background

Definitions of the various types of functioning have been taken fro…

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A variety of factors contribute to functional impairment in patients with schizophrenia
A variety of factors contribute to functional impairment in patients with schizophrenia

Please note, this slide builds.

Key message: A variety of factors contribute to impairment in everyday functioning in patients with schizophrenia, including functional capacity, social cognition, symptoms, environmental factors, and health status.

  • The figure on this sli…

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Multiple measures of patient functioning exist, but may not always help to understand the impact on the patient1
Multiple measures of patient functioning exist, but may not always help to understand the impact on the patient1

Key message: Although many measures of functioning exist, little is known about how these measures help to understand the impact of functional impairment.[Wilson C et al., 2016]

  • To comprehensively evaluate functional outcome in schizophrenia, a combination of performance…
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Quality of life can be measured using different scales
Quality of life can be measured using different scales

Key message: Quality of life can be measured using different scales.

Background
Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale (QLS).[Bilker et al., 2003; Cramer et al., 2001]

  • The QLS balances subjective questions regarding life satisfaction and occupational role functioning.…
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Patients may have functional goals that are personal and meaningful to them
Patients may have functional goals that are personal and meaningful to them

Goal-setting helps patients focus on improving their daily lives, and accomplishing these goals provides a sense of satisfaction and success.[Med-IQ, 2014]

Reference:
Med IQ. Goal-Setting Worksheet for People with Schizophrenia. Available at: https://www.mediq.com/files/n…

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Patients may have functional goals that are personal and meaningful to them
Patients may have functional goals that are personal and meaningful to them

Key message: Better social and occupational functioning are consistently identified as important self-defined treatment goals, and improved functioning may be the most meaningful and valued outcome of treatment from a patient and family perspective.[Bellack et al., 2007]

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Patients with schizophrenia experience motivation deficits
Patients with schizophrenia experience motivation deficits

Key message: People with schizophrenia more often refer to their goals as being driven by boredom or a desire to ‘pass time’ and report goals that are more disconnected–disengaged compared with those of healthy controls.[Gard et al., 2014]

  • Patients with schizophrenia als…
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Motivation deficits significantly predict poor functional outcomes in early schizophrenia
Motivation deficits significantly predict poor functional outcomes in early schizophrenia

Key message: Motivational deficits are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia, and correlate significantly with each domain of functioning examined (global functional outcome, social functioning, role functioning, and number of days worked in the past 30 days). These de…

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Current treatment guidelines include optimizing functioning and quality of life as important treatment goals
Current treatment guidelines include optimizing functioning and quality of life as important treatment goals

!--?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?-- Note, this slide contains builds. Goals 2 and 3 change colour to red as these are the most relevant to the focus of the deck.

Current treatment guidelines include optimizing functioning and quality of life as impo…

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Health-related quality of life encompasses many variables
Health-related quality of life encompasses many variables

Key message: Health-related quality of life is complex and encompasses functional abilities, well-being, social interaction, vocational status, and physical and psychological state.

Background[Cramer et al., 2000]

  • Assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has…

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