A working knowledge of the normal structure and function of the nervous system is key to understanding psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia. This slide deck presents an introduction to neuroanatomy, the key components of neurosynaptic transmission, neurotransmitters and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Last, it includes a discussion of some underlying causes of schizophrenia, such as genetic and environmental factors.

This slide deck has been developed in collaboration with the former Lundbeck International Neuroscience Foundation.

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slide deck

Title

Neurobiology and Aetiology
Neurobiology and Aetiology

This presentation covers aetiology of Schizophrenia.

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Introduction to neuroanatomy

Introduction to neuroanatomy
Introduction to neuroanatomy
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Organisation of the nervous system
Organisation of the nervous system

To understand psychiatric disorders, it is important to have a working understanding of the normal structure and function of the nervous system. The central nervous system (CNS; brain, spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) are made up of neurones and glial cell…

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Neurones
Neurones

The neurone constitutes the functional unit of the nervous system; there are over 100 billion neurones in the brain.[Purves et al., 2008; Martin, 2003; Kandel et al., 2000] Each neurone has the ability to interact with and influence many other cells, which creates a syste…

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Anatomical regions of the brain
Anatomical regions of the brain

The brain is divided into four anatomical regions: the diencephalon, brainstem, cerebrum, and cerebellum, as described on the slide.[Kandel et al., 2000; Tortora & Derrickson, 2009]

References:
Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessell TM (eds). Principles of Neural Science. 4th e…

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Cerebrum
Cerebrum

The cerebral cortex is the main functional unit of the cerebrum.[Tortora & Derrickson, 2009] The three main functional areas of the cerebral cortex are:[Tortora & Derrickson, 2009; Prise & Wilson, 2003]

  • motor areas that control voluntary movement (primary, secondary, an…
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Lobes of the brain
Lobes of the brain

The brain can be thought of as comprising five ‘lobes’ – the four lobes of the cerebral cortex and a fifth lobe, the insula, deep within the brain, as shown on the slide.[Martin, 2003; Tortora & Derrickson, 2009; Price & Wilson, 2003] The lobes of the cerebral cortex are …

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Neurosynaptic transmission

Neurosynaptic transmission
Neurosynaptic transmission
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Neurotransmission
Neurotransmission

Information moves through the nervous system via two integrated forms of communication – electrical neurotransmission and chemical neurotransmission, as shown on the slide.[Kandel et al., 2000]
An action potential is generated at the origin of the axon following sufficien…

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The synapse
The synapse

Neurones do not physically touch one another; two neurones are separated by a gap, known as a synaptic cleft.[Kandel et al., 2000] Because neurones do not touch, and an action potential cannot ‘jump’ across a synaptic cleft, the signal must be converted to a chemical sign…

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Process of chemical neurotransmission
Process of chemical neurotransmission

The idea that neurotransmission occurs at synapses and is mediated by chemicals was, at first, a contentious issue.[Purves et al., 2008] It was in the first half of the 1900s that experiments proved chemical neurotransmission occurred.[Purves et al., 2008]
The process is …

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