The action of noradrenaline at the synapse is terminated by its re-uptake across the pre-synaptic membrane. This is an energy dependent process. Sodium/potassium ATPases use energy from ATP hydrolysis to create a concentration gradient of ions across the pre-synaptic membrane that drives the opening of the transporter and co-transport of sodium and chloride ions and noradrenaline from the synaptic cleft. Potassium ions binding to the transporter enable it to return to the outward position. Release of the potassium ions into the synaptic cleft equilibrates the ionic gradient across the pre-synaptic membrane. The noradrenaline re-uptake transporter is then available to bind another noradrenaline molecule for re-uptake.

file_download Download

Related content

image Image Studying Cognitive Impairment and its Neuronal Underpinnings to Predict Illness Prognosis in Bipolar Disorder
Studying Cognitive Impairment and its Neuronal Underpinnings to Predict Illness Prognosis in Bipolar Disorder

To study intra-disease variability in cognitive function, researchers employ data-driven clustering methods to differentiate patients with widespread cognitive abnormalities from patients who are cognitively intact.

05.02.2024 Mental Health
image Image The Clinical Heterogeneity in Bipolar Disorder within Several Domains.
The Clinical Heterogeneity in Bipolar Disorder within Several Domains

Bipolar disorder is associated with marked clinical and phenotypic heterogeneity, including differences in symptomatology, medical and psychiatric comorbidities, and neurocognitive function. Intra- and inter-individual differences increase the complexity of the disorder, which complicates accurate diagnosis, management.

05.02.2024 Mental Health
image Image Predominant polarity in bipolar disorder (BD) refers to the dominance of either depressive or manic episodes in an individual’s illness history.
Predominant Polarity in Bipolar Disorder

Depressive predominant polarity is typically defined as having at least two-thirds of lifetime episodes being depressive, whereas manic predominant polarity refers to at least two-thirds of prior episodes being (hypo)manic episodes. Studies show that predominant polarity has prognostic value and clinical and therapeutic implications.

05.02.2024 Mental Health