The table summarizes the high-level clinical characteristics of the existing and newly emerging pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia with at least one positive placebo-controlled trial.

Improvements in positive symptoms of schizophrenia include hallucinations and delusions.

Improvements in negative symptoms of schizophrenia include affective flattening, alogia, anhedonia, motivation, and asociality.

Improvements in cognitive dysfunction include attention/vigilance, reasoning, problem-solving, processing speed, working memory, verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, and social cognition.

Extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) include dystonia, Parkinsonism, akathisia, and tardive dyskinesia.

Side effects related to postsynaptic dopamine receptor blockade include EPS, prolactin elevation, and sexual side effects.

Anticholinergic side effects include constipation and dyspepsia.

Cardiometabolic side effects include weight gain, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia.1

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