The various comorbidities of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) adversely affect patients’ quality of life. MDD frequently occurs alongside substance-related and anxiety disorders, as well as a host of other physical conditions such as type 2 diabetes. This slide deck includes graphic illustrations of a retrospective analysis of patient data performed to compare the prevalence of chronic conditions in patients with MDD.

This slide deck has been developed in collaboration with the former Lundbeck International Neuroscience Foundation.

Index for
slide deck

Introduction

Comorbidity
Comorbidity

A retrospective analysis of patient data was performed to compare the prevalence of chronic conditions in patients with MDD. Of the total population studied, roughly one in ten had depression.

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Prevalence of chronic conditions in patients with MDD
Prevalence of chronic conditions in patients with MDD

!--?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?-- In this study, data from the 2007 and 2009 releases of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) were used.[Bhattacharya et al., 2014] The MEPS is a nationally representative annual survey of households represen…

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Prevalence of MDD in patients with chronic conditions
Prevalence of MDD in patients with chronic conditions

!--?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?-- The analysis discussed here concludes that there exists a bidirectional relationship between depression and chronic illnesses.[Voinov et al., 2013]

Reference:
Voinov B, Richie WD, Bailey RK. Depression and chronic…

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Depression adds to the burden of chronic conditions
Depression adds to the burden of chronic conditions

!--?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?-- The WHO (World Health Organization) World Health Survey studied >240, 000 adults, aged ≥18 years, across 60 countries.[Moussavi et al., 2007] An average of 9.3–23.0% of participants with one or more chronic physic…

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The effect of comorbidities on patients’ quality of life
The effect of comorbidities on patients’ quality of life

!--?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?-- The various comorbidities of MDD (psychiatric and physical) adversely affect the quality of life of the patient.[IsHak et al., 2014; IsHak et al., 2018; Zhou et al., 2017] This emphasises the point that attending …

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Neuropsychiatric comorbidities

Neuropsychiatric comorbidities
Neuropsychiatric comorbidities
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Psychiatric comorbidities of MDD
Psychiatric comorbidities of MDD

!--?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?-- The study by Thaipisuttikul and colleagues was a cross-sectional study, conducted between October 2012 and January 2014.[Thaipisuttikul et al., 2014] In total, 190 patients with MDD, as confirmed by the Mini Inter…

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Anxiety
Anxiety

!--?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?-- The Patient Health Questionnaire is a self-administered tool of 2 (PHQ-2) or 9 (PHQ-9) items.[Kroenke et al., 2001; Spitzer et al., 1999] The PHQ-9 establishes the clinical diagnosis of depression and can addition…

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Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)

!--?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?-- Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with reduced quality of life, and functional impairments.[APA, 2013, pg. 240] It is defined as:[APA, 2013, pg. 237] obsession; recurrent and persistent thoughts, u…

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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

!--?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?-- The essential feature of PTSD is the development of a certain set of symptoms after exposure to a traumatic event; the symptoms include fear-based re-experiencing of the traumatic event, but can also include anhed…

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

!--?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?-- The essential feature of ADHD is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity that interferes with functioning or development.[APA, 2013, pg. 61] For example, wandering off task, or difficulty sustaini…

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Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia

The essential feature of schizophrenia is the presence of hallucinations, delusions, disorganised speech or behaviour, or of negative symptoms.[APA, 2013, pg. 100] As noted on the slide, some of the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia overlap with those for MDD, particu…

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Substance-use disorder
Substance-use disorder

!--?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?-- Substance-use disorders are a group of cognitive, behavioural, and physiological symptoms indicating that the individual continues to use a substance despite problems related to the use of that substance.[APA, 201…

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Neurological disorders and MDD
Neurological disorders and MDD

!--?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?-- See Slide deck #3 of this series – ‘Neurobiology and aetiology’ to read more about the potential shared pathways underlying MDD and other neurological disorders. Disentangling the various comorbidities of MDD is a…

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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and MDD
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and MDD

!--?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?-- Whether or not, and to what extent, depression is a risk factor for, or a constituent part of the prodrome of, dementia, is still a contentious issue.[Cha et al., 2014; Mirza et al., 2014] One study followed >4, 3…

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